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Handbook of Die Design
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Our Day return guarantee still applies. Bookseller Completion Rate This reflects the percentage of orders the seller has received and filled. Advanced Book Search Browse by Subject. Make an Offer. Find Rare Books Book Value. Sign up to receive offers and updates: Subscribe. All Rights Reserved. Where this ratio is exceeded, a fracture of the shell results, attributable to the exhaustionof drawing properties of the particular material.
This means that from a blank of a certainsize, only a certain cup diameter and its depth may be produced during a single drawing pass. The severity of draw is calculated using Eq. It may be calculated by using Eq.
Subsequently, with smaller drawing dieradii such as those ranging between 4t and 8t, larger coefficients are recommended. For metals low in ductility, such as brass and some harder grades of aluminum, thecoefficient should be made purposely larger and lowered for more ductile materials. The height h of each step of drawing sequence see Fig.
As already mentioned, sometimes annealing between the steps becomes necessary. For evaluation of this type of stress, Eq. Several recommended cupping ratios and their respective strain factors are shownin Table Reprinted with permission from theMcGraw-Hill Companies. Usually a strain factor of 1.
In multioperational redrawing sequences, the total strain factor should be considered tobe a multiple of the respective stress factors of all drawing operations. The amount of stress factor value is mainly influenced by the ductility and strain hard-ening of the particular material.
Handbook of Die Design, 2nd Edition
Where the total stress factor amount is reached sooner thanthe finished product is produced, annealing of the shell must be performed. Singular strain factors—as may be seen from the formulas above—depend on ratios ofthe blank diameter to the shell diameter, or on the height of the drawn cup. The thicknessof metal and the amount of friction within the particular drawing pass are also of impor-tance in this process. Where greater depths or reductions are required, subsequent drawing passesmust be added. To determine the amount of reduction per given shell size, the followingformulas should be used.
For visual representation ofdrawing sequence and terminology applicable to the above formulas, refer to Fig. Arough assessment of the blank reduction in drawing can be ascertained by using the graphprovided in Fig. From: Frank W. A maximum percentage of reduction fordeep-drawing materials of various thicknesses is slightly higher than the values includedpreviously.
Intermediate annealing is to be utilized only when the shells become strainhardened or when cracks begin to form. Table , giving the values of the maximum possible reduction, should be used for diesoperating in hydraulic presses, where the pressure of the blankholder is constant. The per-centages given here are recommended for drawing operations only where no ironing isinvolved. Should ironing of the shell be needed, the values shown in Table must bereduced. Drawing of stainless-steel shells may basi-cally follow the same procedures as drawing of other materials. But a slight change inreduction formulas is necessary, for in the drawing process, stainless steel behaves differ-ently from other materials.
For example, a large reduction from the basic flat blank is possible for stainless steel of type, but the subsequent drawing operations must be very moderate. A chromium type steel cannot be drawn into great depths from a blank, yet largerreductions may be obtained through succeeding redrawing operations. Generally, chromium-nickel stainless steel strain hardens quite readily, for which rea-son more frequent anneals, combined with lower drawing speeds and better lubrication, arerequired.
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The amount of reduction of the particular stainless-steel material may be calculated withthe help of constants BSS-1 and BSS-2, listed in Table The preferred press equip-ment to be used is a double-action press or a single-action die with a drawing collar and anair cushion. Already the fact that some nonmagnetic stainless steel turns positively magneticafter second or third drawing sequence, is worth pondering upon.
Further, it affects thedistribution of strain, caused by the action of drawing, while supporting the developmentof higher compressive stresses within the walls of shells. To eliminate the effect of strain hardening, radial tension in the walls of the drawn partmust be enhanced, and the die radius should be decreased. Where the pressure of the blankholder isinadequate, these wrinkles will increase; but with higher blank-holding pressure, fracturing ofmetal covering the tip of a punch will occur. In cold-rolled steels and high-strength low-alloyed materials the limitation in drawingdepth due to fractures or wrinkling was already established.
In high-strength low-alloyedmaterials, the tendency to wrinkling is known as well, which—in order to be prevented—will demand higher blank-holding pressures applied against the blank. In martensitic stainless steel, the strain-hardening tendency of the material decreases asthe temperature rises. Coarselygrained material also displays an increase in its ductility. At such a temperature range, a strain of high-est uniformity may be obtained in steels with 1.
Generally, slight variations in the strain rate values do not affect the strain-hardeningtendency of the material. The strain factor of the material E,when equal to 1. With strain-hardened metal, the Emax value, which is the ultimate strain factor [see Eq. For purposes of calculation,these material data can be obtained from the mill where the steel was produced. A comparison of strain hardening, strain factor, tensile strength, and diametral reduc-tion can be found in Fig.
The strain-hardening exponent n determines the plastic limit or ultimate strength of thematerial usually avoided in general deep drawing practice. Ultimate strength, with elasticlimit, hardness, and yield point, increase when the strain factor of cupping Ec increases. From these assumptions, an appropriate redraw-ing strain factor may be computed by using Eq.
This decrease may often be considerable, in which caseseveral drawing passes are needed if these shells are to be produced using either con-ventional processes or alternative manufacturing methods such as extruding or reversedrawing. Shells of smaller diameters may be deep-drawn with an addition of thinning, or ironingof their walls. The number of necessary drawing passes depends on the ratio of the wallthicknesses before and after drawing, and it is influenced by the maximum possible defor-mation of the material.
The n denotes the sequential number of the draw, 1, 2, 3,. Since the friction between material and tooling may be considerable in such a case, parts arecoated prior to drawing with copper or phosphate coatings. Trimming of the drawn cup with a flange is usually inevitable, for the outer edge of theblank may become distorted by the drawing process Fig. Trimming of the flange is performed in the last operation of the sequence, where the fin- ished part is also ejected out of the die.
Sometimes a pinch-trim of the shell is preferred, because of its speed and simplicity of operation Fig. Where parts without flanges are to be drawn, the blank size for their production should be exact, with no material to be removed afterward. This way the material volume gets all used up in the drawing process. The finished shell may be ejected from the die in a last drawing stage, where it is dropped down on return of the punch Fig.